Larimar is a rare blue variety of pectolite, a sodium calcium silicate mineral with the chemical formula NaCa₂Si₃O₈(OH). It forms in cavities within basaltic lava through secondary hydrothermal processes. The formation age of Larimar has been proven to be approximately equal to or younger than 40,000 years.

The blue color of Larimar is not solely due to copper. While native copper often grows together with Larimar, recent research suggests that vanadium and iron are the primary origins of the sky-blue and green colors in Larimar. The unique color shades are influenced by both chemical elements and the orientation of radial fiber crystals within the stone.

The name “Larimar” is derived from the combination of “Larissa” (the name of a local Dominican man’s daughter) and “mar,” the Spanish word for sea, reflecting its ocean-like colors. Alternative names include “Stefilia’s Stone,” named after the original discoverer.

Larimar has limited historical mythology due to its recent discovery in 1974. However, it is considered a spiritual stone in the Dominican Republic, believed to have healing properties and to promote relaxation. It is associated with the energies of the sea and sky, embodying peace and clarity. Larimar is believed to be connected to the lost city of Atlantis and is often called the “Atlantis Stone.”

Larimar is exclusively found in the Dominican Republic, specifically in the Barahona Province. It is mined manually using simple tools due to the rugged terrain and then cut and polished into cabochons, beads, and other jewelry items. Larimar is a significant cultural and economic resource for the region, often marketed as a unique gemstone with a strong connection to the Caribbean Sea.